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The 7th IEEE Southern Power Electronics Conference (IEEE SPEC 2022), offers an ideal opportunity for researchers, engineers, academics and students from all over the world to bring the latest technological advances and applications in power electronics to the Southern Hemisphere, as well as to network and promote the discipline.

Cutting edge researchers in the field will present keynote speeches during a four-day program that also features tutorials and technical session on theory, analysis, design, testing and advances within the field of power electronics.

Scholarships are offered for students to cover the cost of attending the conference and reduced registration fees apply to delegates from UN least developed countries.

Delegates are eligible for free membership of Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the Power Electronics Society (PELS). The papers presented at the conference will be included in the IEEEXplore Digital Library.

This year 7th IEEE SPEC 2022 is being held in the heart of the South Pacific, Fiji. Fiji is blessed with 333 tropical islands that are the home to happiness. The conference will be hosted at Sheraton Fiji Golf & Beach Resort, Denarau Island, Fiji from the 05th – 08th December 2022 and will allow both in-person and virtual attendance. The Conference is hosted and sponsored by the IEEE, IEEE Power Electronics Society, IEEE Fiji Subsection, Fiji National University, The University of the South Pacific, The University of Fiji, CQUniversity – Australia, Auckland University, Fiji Institute of Engineers, Energy Fiji Limited, Fiji Airways, and NPS Australia.


Professor Frede Blaabjerg
IEEE Fellow

Professor in Power Electronics

Villum Investigator, Aalborg University, Denmark


Title: Power Electronics Technology – Quo Vadis


The world is becoming more and more electrified combined with that the consumption is steadily increasing – at the same time there is a large transition of power generation from fossil fuel to renewable energy based which all together challenges the modern power system but also gives many opportunities. We see also now big steps being taken to electrify the transportation – both better environment as well as higher efficiency are driving factors. One of the most important technologies to move this forward is the power electronics technology which has been emerging for decades and still challenges are seen in the technology and the applications it is used. This presentation will be a little forward looking (Quo Vadis) in some exciting research areas in order further to improve the technology and the systems it is used in. Following main topics will be discussed

  • The evolution of power devices
  • Renewable Generation
  • Reliability in power electronics
  • Power Electronic based Power System stability

At last some discussions about other hot topics will be given.

Biography: Frede Blaabjerg (S’86–M’88–SM’97–F’03) was with ABB-Scandia, Randers, Denmark, from 1987 to 1988. From 1988 to 1992, he got the PhD degree in Electrical Engineering at Aalborg University in 1995. He became an Assistant Professor in 1992, an Associate Professor in 1996, and a Full Professor of power electronics and drives in 1998 at AAU Energy. From 2017 he became a Villum Investigator. He is honoris causa at University Politehnica Timisoara (UPT), Romania in 2017 and Tallinn Technical University (TTU), Estonia in 2018. His current research interests include power electronics and its applications such as in wind turbines, PV systems, reliability, harmonics and adjustable speed drives. He has published more than 600 journal papers in the fields of power electronics and its applications. He is the co-author of four monographs and editor of ten books in power electronics and its applications. He has received 33 IEEE Prize Paper Awards, the IEEE PELS Distinguished Service Award in 2009, the EPE-PEMC Council Award in 2010, the IEEE William E. Newell Power Electronics Award 2014, the Villum Kann Rasmussen Research Award 2014, the Global Energy Prize in 2019 and the 2020 IEEE Edison Medal. He was the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics from 2006 to 2012. He has been Distinguished Lecturer for the IEEE Power Electronics Society from 2005 to 2007 and for the IEEE Industry Applications Society from 2010 to 2011 as well as 2017 to 2018. In 2019-2020 he served as a President of IEEE Power Electronics Society. He has been Vice-President of the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences. He is nominated in 2014-2020 by Thomson Reuters to be between the most 250 cited researchers in Engineering in the world.

Professor Johann W. Kolar
IEEE Fellow

Professor in Power Electronics,

Power Electronic Systems Laboratory

ETH Zürich
Physikstrasse 3
8092 Zürich


Title: Solid-State Transformers – The Slope of Enlightenment


Solid-State Transformers (SSTs) provide isolation and power flow control between medium-voltage and low-voltage AC or DC systems and are formed by input- and output-side power electronic converters, which are linked through a medium-frequency transformer (MFT). Therefore, SSTs are expected to be well suited for replacing bulky low-frequency transformers of high-power EV charging stations, datacenters, traction vehicles etc. and are in general seen as key elements of future smart microgrids.

The talk starts with a brief review of the origins of and the initial motivations for the SST concept, and its development along the technology hype cycle. Next, the most important conceptual aspects of SSTs such as handling high input voltages with single-cell or multi-cell topologies, and isolated front-end vs. isolated back-end or two-stage vs. single-stage converter architectures are discussed. MFTs as key components of SSTs are covered next with a focus on the very high isolation voltage requirements and isolation coordination, before outlining system-level protection concepts.

The status of the SST technology is then exemplified by spotlighting full-scale demonstrator systems presented by industry and academia in the recent years. This facilitates an application-oriented evaluation of the SST concept, specifically considering high-interest applications in datacenters and ultra-fast EV charging. A fair assessment of the current state of the art is achieved by comparing the SST-based approaches with conventional/alternative solutions. Finally, the trajectories for future SST research and development needed to improve the performance of SSTs significantly above that of competing approaches are identified.


Johann W. Kolar is a Fellow of the IEEE, an International Member of the US NAE and a Full Professor and Head of the Power Electronic Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich. He has proposed numerous novel converter concepts incl. the Vienna Rectifier, has spearheaded the development of x-million rpm motors, and has pioneered fully automated multi-objective power electronics design procedures. He has supervised  82 Ph.D. students to completion, has published 1000+ IEEE journal and conference papers, 4 book chapters, and has filed 200+ patents. He has served as IEEE PELS Distinguished Lecturer from 2012 – 2016. He has received numerous awards incl. 45 IEEE transactions and conference Prize Paper Awards, the 2016 IEEE William E. Newell Power Electronics Award, and 2 ETH Zurich Golden Owl Awards for excellence in teaching. The focus of his current research is on ultra-compact/efficient WBG converter systems, ANN-based design procedures, Solid-State Transformers, ultra-high speed drives, bearingless actuators, and life cycle analysis of power electronics converter systems.


Professor Mark Dehong Xu
IEEE Fellow

Professor in Power Electronics

Institute of Power Electronics
Zhejiang University
Hangzhou, China


Title: Wide-Band-Gap Power Electronics Conversion for Renewable Energy Power Systems

AbstractThere is ever increased demand for Renewable Energy Power Systems with higher efficiency, higher power density, and better dynamics. The combination of Wide-Band-Gap (WBG) devices and advanced power electronics conversion will significantly boost the performance of power electronics conversion. It is enabling technology for future Renewable Energy Power Systems.  The WBG device helps push the applications of soft-switching technology to various power conversion systems.  Firstly a generic soft-switching WBG power conversion with Pulse-Width-Modulation, Edge-Align PWM (EA-PWM), is introduced. Then it is extended to various Renewable Energy Power Systems such as PV and wind power, battery energy storage, Fuel-Cell system, solid-state transformer, etc. Experimental results of a soft-switching SiC MOSFET grid inverter and SiC MOSFET three-phase BTB converter are introduced.

Biography: Prof. Mark Dehong Xu received Ph.D. degrees from the Department of Electrical Engineering of Zhejiang University in China in 1989. He used to be a visiting professor in the University of Tokyo, Virginia Tech, and ETH. Since 1996, he has been with the College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, as a Full Professor. His research interests include power electronics topology, control, and applications for energy saving and renewable energy. He has authored or coauthored nine books and more than 300 IEEE Journal or Conference papers. He owns more than 50 patents. He is the recipient of seven IEEE journal or conference paper awards. In 2016, he received IEEE PELS R. D. Middlebrook Achievement Award. He is the IEEE PELS Distinguish Lecturer in 2015-2018. He is IEEE Fellow. He is At-Large Adcom Member of the IEEE Power Electronics Society from 2020-2022. He is Co-Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Open Journal of Power Electronics, an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics etc. Now, he is Vice-President of IEEE Power Electronics Society.

Professor Joseph Guerrero
IEEE Fellow

Professor, Electric Power Systems and Microgrids

The Faculty of Engineering and Science,

Aalborg University

Pontoppidanstræde 111, 25

9220 Aalborg, Denmark



Title: Neuroscience Inspiration for Biological and Electrical Space Microgrids

AbstractThis talk will begin by introducing the control of microgrids, the parallelisms with the human brain and the research for possible sources of inspiration in the last frontiers of neuroscience. Then, control in electric power systems of satellites and space platforms will be presented, showing approaches that are extended from terrestrial microgrids and explaining the differences and challenges when it comes to apply them out in space. Further, multi-microgrid systems will be discussed for moon craters in future lunar manmade bases. Finally, the extension from the hierarchical control of microgrids to bioastronautics in the control of closed ecological systems to support with oxygen, water, and food to the astronauts and thus creating new ecosystems for the moon and future mars bases.

Biography: Josep M. Guerrero (S’01-M’04-SM’08-FM’15) received the B.Sc. degree in telecommunications engineering, the M.Sc. degree in electronics engineering, and the Ph.D. degree in power electronics from the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, in 1997, 2000 and 2003, respectively. Nowadays he is working towards the M.Sc. Degree in Psychobiology and Cognitive Neuroscience at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Since 2011, he has been a Full Professor with AAU Energy, Aalborg University, Denmark, where he is responsible for the Microgrid Research Program. From 2019, he became a Villum Investigator by The Villum Fonden, which supports the Center for Research on Microgrids (CROM) at Aalborg University, being Prof. Guerrero the founder and Director of the same center (www.crom.et.aau.dk).  His research interests are oriented to different microgrid frameworks in applications like microgrid clusters, IoT-based and digital twins, cybersecurity, maritime microgrids for electrical ships, vessels, ferries and seaports, space microgrids applied to nanosatellites and closed bioecological systems, and smart medical systems. Prof. Guerrero is an Associate Editor for a number of IEEE TRANSACTIONS. He has published more than 800 journal papers in the fields of microgrids and renewable energy systems, which are cited more than 80,000 times. During eight consecutive years, from 2014 to 2021, he was awarded by Clarivate Analytics (former Thomson Reuters) as Highly Cited Researcher with 55 highly cited papers. In 2021, he received the IEEE Bimal Bose Award for Industrial Electronics Applications in Energy Systems, for his pioneering contributions to renewable energy based microgrids. In 2022, he received the IEEE PES Douglas M. Staszesky Distribution Automation Award, for contributions to making the hierarchical control of microgrid systems a practical reality.

Professor Faz Rahman
Life-Fellow IEEE

Professor, Power Systems

School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunication

UNSW Sydney
Kensington NSW 2052 


Title: Design and Control of IPM Machines in Traction Drives for EVs


This presentation will track the evolution of the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines that led to adoption of this motor for vehicle traction.  As a result of these developments, high efficiency, fast dynamics, and high constant-power speed range that are required for vehicles became possible. A brief account of the developments in motor design for various stator and rotor structures with wide CPSR is followed by controller developments that exploit the full torque-speed characteristics of the motor to match with requirements of typical traction drives. Model based control with high efficiency and field weakening will be reviewed. Parameter variations namely, stator resistance Rs, magnet flux linkage lf and q-axis inductance Lq of the IPMSM that lead to deviations from the optimal control (trajectories) will be brought out. These will be by followed by a description of techniques of tracking these parameters will be presented.  


Muhammed F. Rahman graduated in 1972 from the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. He obtained his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in 1975 and 1978 from University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, UK. He subsequently joined the GEC, in Rugby, UK, as a Systems Design Engineer for developing automation software for electrical drives for the steel and aluminum rolling industry. He joined the National University of Singapore in 1980 as a lecturer, after two years at the GEC. He joined the University of New South Wales, Australia in 1988 as a Senior Lecturer, from where he was a Professor in Energy Systems until his retirement in December 2020. He then rejoined UNSW as an Emeritus Professor from January 2021. His research interests are in Power Electronics, Electrical Machines and Motor Drives. He has published 4 books, 23 chapters in books, 120 journals and 380 conference publications. He is a Life-Fellow of the IEEE.



TitleHigh-Power-Density High-Frequency Modular Power Converters for Electronic Grid Applications

Professor Dushan Boroyevich

Virginia Tech, USA

The unrelenting progress of the power electronics field has been a major enabler for massive deployment of renewable energy sources in the electrical power grid over the past several decades, and it may not be long before all human energy needs could be dominantly provided by electricity, delivered through a hierarchical network of dynamically-decoupled, electronically-interconnected, sub-networks: the Intergrid. The replacement of the existing substations with electronic energy routers will facilitate the change to dc power transmission and distribution, but will require major advances in the modularity and scalability, as well as energy efficiency and power density of the power converters, in order to be economically acceptable. The tutorial will present several key enabling technologies that are being investigated in the Center for Power Electronics Systems (CPES) at Virginia Tech.

After a brief introduction to the Intergrid concept, several innovative approaches to packaging of high-voltage SiC MOSFETs for high-frequency operation will be described. Design, implementation and testing of an experimental 6 kV, 0.25 MW, half-bridge power-cell, utilizing 10 kV SiC MOSFETs switching at 10 kHz will be presented next. This will include detailed descriptions of intelligent gate drivers, current and voltage sensors, planar power interconnects, auxiliary power system components, commutating inductors, and electro-thermo-mechanical layout for partial-discharge-free operation in a medium-voltage modular multi-cell (MMC) converters.

Next, a novel switching-cycle control concept for MMC converters will be described, which allows all passive components to be sized inverse-proportionally to the high switching frequency. An innovative concept of implementing real-time distributed control algorithms in modular multi-core hardware and multi-thread software will be presented next. The key enabler for embedding this “cloud computing” into modular power converters is to maintain precise synchronicity of real-time clocks in each computing and power processing node. Early results of implementing “White Rabbit” precision time protocol in the inter-node communications to maintain the synchronicity within a nanosecond will be described. A proposed communications and control hardware architecture and realization will be shown.

Intergrid design can be facilitated by simulation with non-linear terminal behavioural average models (as is the common practice today for traditional power systems). Stable and safe system integration and operation can then be assured by developing voltage, current and line-frequency interconnect standards for the electronic energy routers, by imposing small-signal impedance specifications at their terminals, by utilizing compatible communication channels, by protection coordination between them, and by supervisory control to optimize system energy efficiency. Several examples of modelling and analysis of small scale, medium voltage, all-power-electronics microgrids in different transient scenarios (black-start, islanding, reconnecting, faults …) will be presented in the last sequence.

Dushan Boroyevich was born in 1952 in Zagreb, Croatia, in what then used to be Yugoslavia. In the same country, he earned a Dipl. Ing. degree from the University of Belgrade in 1976 and an M.S. degree from the University of Novi Sad in 1982, both in electrical engineering. Between 1976 and 1982 Dushan was instructor at the Institute for Power and Electronic Engineering of the University of Novi Sad, helping to establish the electronics program. He then joined Virginia Tech for three and a half years for doctoral studies with General Electric Co. Fellowship. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 1986, he returned to the University of Novi Sad as an assistant professor, where he founded the power and industrial electronics research and education programs.


In 1990, Dr. Boroyevich joined the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech, as associate professor, and in 1996 became associate director of Virginia Power Electronics Center that was founded by Prof. Fred Lee ten years earlier. In 1998, Fred and Dushan led the team of faculty from Virginia Tech, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez, and North Carolina A&T State University to win the US National Science Foundation funding for the first national engineering research center in the area of power electronics, the Center for Power Electronics Systems (CPES). With over 20 professors and over 200 students, working in partnership with more than 80 companies, CPES became the most renowned power electronics research and education center in the world. In addition to its alumni, probably the most enduring legacy of CPES was the paradigm shift in power electronics research towards higher levels of integration and modularization.


Dr. Boroyevich is now also the CPES Deputy Director and Virginia Tech’s Associate Vice President for Research and Innovation in Energy Systems. He has led numerous research projects in the areas of multi-phase power conversion, electronic power distribution systems, modeling and control, and multi-disciplinary design optimization. He developed a comprehensive geometric approach to modeling and control of high-frequency switching power converters that is widely used in the analysis, design, and control of multi-phase ac power conversion systems. He has graduated almost 50 Ph.D. and 50 M.S. students, and has co-authored with them over 1000 technical publications and 20 patents.


Dr. Boroyevich is an IEEE Fellow, a recipient of the IEEE William E. Newell Power Electronics Technical Field Award and of IEEE Power Electronics Society Harry A. Owen Distinguished Service Award, and he was the President of the IEEE Power Electronics Society in 2011-2012. He is also the recipient of the Outstanding Achievement Award by the European Power Electronics Association and the award for Outstanding Achievements and Service to Profession by the European Power Electronics and Motion Control Council. Dr. Boroyevich is an Honorary Professor at Tsinghua University and at Xi’an Jiaotong University, and the Pao Yue-Kong Chair Professor at Zhejiang University in P.R. China, and the Kwoh-Ting Li Chair Professor at the National Cheng-Kung University in Taiwan. He received six prize paper awards, several awards for excellence in research and teaching at Virginia Tech and he is a member of the Virginia Tech College of Engineering Academy of Engineering Excellence. Dr. Boroyevich was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering in 2014 for advancements in the control, modeling, and design of electronic power conversion for electric energy and transportation.


Title: Next-Generation SiC/GaN Three-Phase PFC Rectifier and PWM Inverter Systems

Professor Johann W. Kolar

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Sweden

Dr Jonas Huber

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Sweden

This tutorial derives new concepts for future SiC/GaN-based three-phase (3-Φ) PWM rectifiers and inverter systems. In addition to high power density and high efficiency, the systems should feature a wide input/output voltage range as well as cognitive functionality for a seamless integration in Industry 4.0 environments. Considering latest SiC/GaN devices, we explain the main loss mechanisms for hard switching with and without gate-drive-based dv/dt-limitation, and the origin of residual ZVS losses, focusing on experimental device characterization. We then identify degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) that facilitate a transition from state-of-the-art two-level converter structures to new converter concepts and operation schemes, considering different functional levels:
(1) Switch level: dv/dt-limitation and advanced switching-frequency-limited ZVS
(2) Bridge-leg level: full/hybrid multi-level topologies and quasi-2-level modulation
(3) Converter level: quasi-single-stage buck-boost current DC-link converter systems
(4) System level: synergetic control of two cascaded converter stages.
We present hardware prototypes that implement combinations of these DOFs to compare their performance characteristics against current industrial solutions. Finally, we discuss the transformation of the power electronic converter into a cognitive system that leverages machine-learning algorithms or digital-twin models to translate data from already employed sensors into application-level information for Industry 4.0 environments.

Johann W. Kolar (M’89–F’10) is a Fellow of the IEEE, an International Member of the US NAE and a Full Professor and Head of the Power Electronic Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich. He has proposed numerous novel converter concepts incl. the Vienna Rectifier, has spearheaded the development of x-million rpm motors and has pioneered fully automated multi-objective power electronics design procedures. He has graduated 80+ Ph.D. students, has published 900+ research papers, 4 book chapters, and has filed 200+ patents. He has served as IEEE PELS Distinguished Lecturer from 2012 – 2016. He has received 40+ IEEE Transactions and Conference Prize Paper Awards, the 2014 IEEE Power Electronics Society R. David Middlebrook Achievement Award, the 2016 IEEE PEMC Council Award, the 2016 IEEE William E. Newell Power Electronics Award, the 2021 EPE Outstanding Achievement Award and 2 ETH Zurich Golden Owl Awards for excellence in teaching.  The focus of his current research is on ultra-compact/efficient WBG PFC rectifier and inverter systems, ultra-high BW switch-mode power amplifiers, multi-port converters, Solid-State Transformers, multi-functional actuators, ultra-high speed / motor-integrated drives, bearingless motors, ANN-based multi-objective design optimization and sustainable systems.


Jonas Huber (S’11–M’16—SM’22) received the MSc (with distinction) degree and the PhD degree from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland, in 2012 and 2016, respectively. Since 2012, he has been with the Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich and became a Post-Doctoral Fellow, focusing his research interests on the field of solid-state transformers, specifically on the analysis, optimization, and design of high-power multi-cell converter systems, reliability considerations, control strategies, and applicability aspects. From 2017, he was with ABB Switzerland Ltd. as an R&D Engineer designing high-power DC-DC converter systems for traction applications, and later with a Swiss utility company as a Business Development Manager. He then returned to the Power Electronic Systems Laboratory as a Senior Researcher in 2020, extending his research scope to all types of WBG-semiconductor-based ultra-compact, ultra-efficient or highly dynamic converter systems. Since 2015, he has co-presented 9 tutorials at major IEEE conferences (e.g., ECCE, APEC).


Title: Design optimization for high-efficiency, high power density hybrid-switched capacitor converters: enabling innovation of power delivery with applications in data centers, solar and future spacecrafts

Assoc. Professor Robert Pilawa-Podgurski

University of California-Berkeley, USA

Samantha Coday

PhD Candidate, University of California-Berkeley, USA

Rose Abramson

PhD Candidate, University of California-Berkeley, USA.

Margaret Blackwell

PhD Candidate, University of California-Berkeley, USA

Dr. Nathan Ellis

Post-Doc Fellow, University of California-Berkeley, USA

Kelly Fernandez

PhD Candidate, University of California-Berkeley, USA

Nathan Brooks

Post-Doc Fellow, University of California-Berkeley, USA

This tutorial will cover the design, optimization and implementation of hybrid switched capacitor (SC) converters. First, a motivation for why hybrid SC converters are suitable solutions for power dense and efficient power delivery will be covered. A general introduction to hybrid SC analysis will be reviewed, including charge flow analysis and general topology comparison. Next, a novel approach to the optimization of hybrid SC converters will be introduced, which
allows designers to minimize the volume of their converter while operating both at-resonance and above-resonance. Motivation for operating above resonance will be discussed and experimental hardware results will be used to help motivate the described operations. Throughout the tutorial example designs will be utilized to showcase the utility of the presented methodology, for a wide range of applications including: space applications, solar and data centers. These examples will also showcase some of the practical implementation challenges and proposed solutions for high-performance design. Finally, general figures of merit and key takeaways will be summarized for designers’ consideration.

Robert Pilawa-Podgurski is currently an Associate Professor in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of California, Berkeley. He received his BS, MEng, and PhD degrees from MIT. His research interests include renewable energy applications, electric vehicles, energy harvesting, CMOS power management, high density and high efficiency power converters, and advanced control of power converters. Dr. Pilawa-Podgurski received the Google Faculty Research Award in 2013, and the 2014 Richard M. Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award of the IEEE Power Electronics Society, given annually to one individual for outstanding contributions to the field of power electronics before the age of 35. In 2015, he received the AFOSR Young Investigator Award, the UIUC Dean’s Award for Excellence in Research in 2016, and the UIUC ECE Ronald W. Pratt Faculty Outstanding Teaching Award in 2017. In 2018, he received the IEEE Education Society Mac E. Van Valkenburg Award, for outstanding contributions to teaching unusually early in his professional career. From 2014 to 2019, he served as Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, and for IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics. He is co-author of twelve IEEE prize papers.


Samantha Coday is a PhD candidate at University of California, Berkeley, advised by Dr. Robert Pilawa-Podgurski. Samantha received her Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering and Mathematics, in 2017, from Southern Methodist University. She then completed her Masters in 2019, at UC Berkeley. Her current research interests are in the design of light-weight multilevel switched capacitor power converters with applications in aerospace. Samantha has been selected as a 2021 EECS Rising Star, a Cadence Women in Technology Scholarship winner and an Outstanding Graduate Student Instructor.


Rose Abramson received the B.S. and M.Eng degree in Electrical Engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA in 2015 and 2016, respectively. After graduating, she worked at an EV startup developing power systems and drivetrains, and then at Lutron Electronics, Inc. developing offline LED drivers. She is currently pursuing her Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Rose is a 2019 NDSEG Fellow and a recipient of the 2021 IEEE Joseph John Suozzi INTELEC Fellowship Award in Power Electronics. Her research focus includes hybrid and resonant switched-capacitor circuits and high-performance DC-DC conversion for data center applications.


Nathan M. Ellis received the B.S. degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from the University College Cork, Ireland, in 2013, and the M.S. and Ph.D degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of California, Davis in 2017 and 2020 respectively. During this time he was funded in part by both Texas Instruments and the U.S. Dept. of Education in recognition of research excellence in areas of national need (GAANN). He is currently a Post-Doctoral Researcher at the University of California, Berkeley within the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. He is an author on over 20 journal and conference publications and holds four U.S. patents. His research interests include Mixed Signal Integrated Circuit Design, Energy Harvesting, Renewable Energy Integration, Biomedical Devices, and spans several topics in high performance power converter design, including; Hybridized Switched-Capacitor Power Converters, Multi-Level Converters, and Adiabatic Gate-Drives. Dr. Ellis was named Best Graduate Researcher by UC Davis’ Industrial Affiliates in 2017, and he received the title of Analog Devices Outstanding Student Designer at the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) in 2020. Additionally, he has co-authored three IEEE prize papers and was awarded Best Technical Lecturer at the Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC) in 2021.


Margaret E. Blackwell received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA in 2017 and the M.S. degree in electrical engineering and computer sciences in 2019 from the University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA, where she is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering. Her current research interests include hybrid switched-capacitor circuits focusing on the modeling and implementation of resonance operation, soft-switching techniques, and EMI mitigation strategies. Ms. Blackwell was the recipient of the IEEE Workshop on Control and Modeling of Power Electronics Best Paper Award, in 2018 and is a 2019 NSF Graduate Research Fellow.


Nathan Brooks received his B.S. degree from Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in 2016 and M.S. degree from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2018 both in Electrical Engineering. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. His research interests include high density single-phase multi-level power converters with emphasis on control and hardware optimization, modeling and simulation, and passive component characterization.


Kelly Fernandez received her B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland in 2016. She is currently a Ph.D. Candidate in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley where her research focuses include multi-level converters and active buffer topologies and control for high performance power conversion for electric vehicle and photovoltaic applications. Kelly is a 2017 University of California Chancellor’s Fellow and a 2019 NSF Graduate Research Fellow. She has also held electrical engineering and power electronics internships at Texas Instruments, Tesla, and Apple.


Title: Advances and Trends in Modular Multilevel Power Converters for MV Grid Applications

Professor Josep Pou

Professor, School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Dr Glen Ghias Farivar

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Dr Ezequiel Rodriguez

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Dr Naga Brahmendra

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of the topologies, modulation, and control aspects of modular multilevel power converters (MMPC) for medium voltage (MV) power grids. Speakers will share their research on both conventional and more advanced modulation, control and fault diagnosis methods, with an emphasis on two applications: (i) MMPC-based STATCOMs, and (ii) MMPC-based energy storage and renewable energy integration into the MV grid. Advanced subjects will be addressed as well, such as the MMPC-based low-capacitance STATCOM systems, MMPC-based energy storage systems, and MMPC-based hybrid energy storage systems with consideration of active power disparity constraints. This family of power converters’ research problems and potential future paths will be presented.

Josep Pou received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)-Barcelona Tech, in 1989, 1996, and 2002, respectively.

In 1990, he joined the faculty of UPC as an Assistant Professor, where he became an Associate Professor in 1993. From February 2013 to August 2016, he was a Professor with the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia. He is currently a Professor with the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, where he is Cluster Director of Power Electronics at the Energy Research Institute at NTU (ERI@N) and co-Director of the Rolls-Royce at NTU Corporate Lab. From February 2001 to January 2002, and February 2005 to January 2006, he was a Researcher at the Center for Power Electronics Systems, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg. From January 2012 to January 2013, he was a Visiting Professor at the Australian Energy Research Institute, UNSW, Sydney. He has authored more than 400 published technical papers and has been involved in several industrial projects and educational programs in the fields of power electronics and systems. His research interests include modulation and control of power converters, multilevel converters, renewable energy, energy storage, power quality, HVdc transmission systems, and more-electrical aircraft and vessels.

He is Associate Editor of the IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics. He was co-Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. He received the 2018 IEEE Bimal Bose Award for Industrial Electronics Applications in Energy Systems.


Glen G Farivar received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the Nooshirvani Institute of Technology, Babol, Iran, in 2008, the M.Sc degree in power electronics from the University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran in 2011, and PhD in electrical engineering from the University of NSW Australia, Sydney, Australia in 2016.

He is currently working at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, as a senior research fellow at the Energy Research Institute (ERI@N) and a co-director of Power Electronics and Applications Research Lab. He is a co-founder of SciLeap which aims to promote research integrity, accessibility and openness.

His research interests include renewable energy systems, high power convertors, energy storage, FACTS, and electric vehicles.


Naga Brahmendra Yadav Gorla received the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India, in 2013, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the National University of Singapore, Singapore, in 2019. From October 2013 to December 2015, he was a Research Engineer with Electrical and Electronics Department, Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore. From April 2019 to July 2020, he was a Research Fellow with Sembcorp-NUS Corporate Laboratory, National University of Singapore. He is currently a Research Fellow with Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His research interests include power quality improvement in grid-connected inverters and rectifiers, common-mode and differential-mode noise, fault tolerance and resiliency in modular power electronic converters, and solid-state-transformer architectures and their control strategies.


Ezequiel Rodriguez was born in Tarragona, Spain, in 1994. He graduated with a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering and a master’s degree in Engineering and Technology of Electronic Systems (topping the 2012 and 2016 graduating cohorts as valedictorian) from Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Catalonia, Spain, in 2016 and 2017, respectively. He procured his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, in 2022.

He is currently working as a post-doctoral research fellow at the Energy Research Institute at NTU (ERI@N), Singapore. He received the Best Thesis Award from NTU in 2022. His research interests include modelling and the control of power electronic converters, with an emphasis on modular multilevel cascade converters for energy storage, SST, and FACTS applications.


Title: Multifunctional Self-bearing Linear-Rotary Actuators with Wireless Power Transfer

Dr Spasoje Miric

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich Rämistrasse 101, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Rosario V. Giuffrida

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich Rämistrasse 101, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Dr Prasad Jayathurathnage

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich Rämistrasse 101, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Linear and rotary actuators (LiRAs) are used in high-end applications, such as pick-and-place robots in the semiconductor/pharmaceutical industry or implantable blood pumps, with incredibly high hygiene and high-precision requirements (sub-μm range). Self-bearing actuators should be employed to accomplish such high demands. The self-bearing feature is enabled by integrating magnetic bearings (MBs) into a LiRA or by incorporating a pump into a LiRA where hydraulic bearings (HBs) are realized. Both self-bearing enablers, MBs and HBs, feature high purity since there is no wear-and-tear, and MBs allow for high precision. Finally, the actuator’s supply must comply with high hygiene requirements and, therefore, moving cables, and cable carriers are replaced by wireless power transfer (WPT) technology enclosed in conductive stainless steel. The WPT system achieves exceptionally high efficiency when the coupling magnetic field is parallel to the stainless steel enclosure sheets.

This Tutorial will first discuss the applications of the LiRAs and highlight the challenges arising from the application requirements and explain how these challenges are overcome with self-bearing LiRAs. We will then focus on the self-bearing LiRAs with MBs, where we will first explain how to incorporate MBs into a linear actuator (LA) and, thereby, within the same volume as the original LA. It will be clarified how the windings of a conventional LA are modified to accomplish this and what winding realization options exist (e.g., separated or combined drive and bearing windings). We will show how the phase currents of such a newly conceived actuator are decoupled for the combined windings to control the linear drive force and the MB radial force. We will then focus on integrating MBs into a LiRA and show what integration options exist. We will compare these options using scaling laws specially derived for this purpose and clarify which should be chosen regarding the application. For the actuator design, we will show how to enhance the cooling to maximize force density and explain the automatized geometry optimization, which couples analytic thermal models and numerical magnetic FEM models. Next, we will discuss the implantable LiRA blood pump, where the pumping feature ensures hydraulic bearings of the mover and, therefore, enables self-bearing characteristics. The pump is intended to be used as a total artificial heart, requiring an extremely compact and efficient design of the LiRA. Finally, we will show WPT through stainless steel (SS) that is used for supplying the moving equipment in environments with high hygiene requirements, e.g., clean rooms in the semiconductor industry.

For the discussed topics hardware demonstrators and measurements that verify newly proposed self-bearing LiRAs and WPT technology will be shown. They highlight the current research on advanced mechatronics at the Power Electronics Systems Laboratory of ETH Zurich.

Spasoje Mirić received B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Belgrade, School of Electrical Engineering in 2012, 2013, and 2018, respectively, with a focus on power electronics systems and drives. In 2021 he defended his second Ph.D. thesis at ETH Zurich at the Power Electronic Systems Laboratory (PES) in the advanced mechatronic systems area. More specifically, during his Ph.D. project, he focused on linear-rotary actuator systems with magnetic bearings, resulting in two new machine topologies patented. Since 2021, he has been with PES as a post-doc researcher, focusing on WBG power converter optimization with hard and soft-switching, new modulation techniques of flying capacitor converters, wireless power transfer systems, and eddy-current-based position sensor systems.


Rosario V. Giuffrida (S’19) received a B.Sc. degree in Electronics Engineering from the University of Catania, Italy, in 2016 and an M.Sc. degree in Robotics, Systems, and Control from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich, Switzerland in 2019. Currently, he is with the Power Electronic Systems Laboratory at ETH Zürich for his Ph.D. studies. His research interests focus on machine design, sensing, and motion control concepts for novel self-bearing linear-rotary actuators.


 Prasad Jayathurathnage (Member, IEEE) received the B.Sc. degree in electronics and telecommunications engineering from the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, in 2009, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and electronic engineering from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, in 2017. He is working at the Queensland University of Technology, Australia, and the Rolls-Royce-NTU Corporate Laboratory, Singapore. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher with the School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland, and an Academic visitor with the Power Electronics Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. His research interests include high-frequency power converters, wide-band-gap devices, and wireless power transfer.


Title: Charging Infrastructure and Grid Integration for Electromobility 

Dr Samir Kouro

Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María Av. España 1680, Of. B340, Valparaíso, Chile

Dr Sebastian Rivera

Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María Av. España 1680, Of. B340, Valparaíso, Chile

This tutorial provides a comprehensive analysis of charging infrastructure from a power electronics perspective, covering the full spectrum of EVs, from light and medium to heavy-duty electric vehicles, balancing theoretical concepts with industrial cases. In addition, the tutorial contemplates how these solutions align with the current charging standards, the challenges and opportunities this developing industry faces, and future trends. Moreover, the tutorial will explore the critical role that the charging infrastructure can have towards a sustainable electric system, expanding its reach in grid supporting services.

Dr. Samir Kouro received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electronics engineering from the Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria (UTFSM), Chile, in 2004 and 2008, respectively. He is currently an academic and General Director of Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship at UTFSM. Since 2018 he is Deputy Director of the Advanced Center for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (AC3E). From 2009 to 2011 he was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada. His research interests include power electronics, renewable energy conversion systems (photovoltaic and wind), and energy transition technologies (green hydrogen and electromobility).

Dr. Kouro was included in The Clarivate Analytics 2018 Highly Cited Researcher List, and received 2018 IEEE-AIE Outstanding Engineer Award, the 2016 IEEE IES Bimal Bose Award for Industrial Electronics Applications in Energy Systems, the 2015 IEEE IES David Irwin Early Career Award, the 2012 IEEE Power Electronics Society Richard M. Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award. In addition, he has received 5 best paper awards in IEEE journals in the years 2022, 2019, 2016, 2012 and 2008. He also has served as technical adviser in several energy related public policy councils and boards for the Chilean Government.


Sebastian Rivera (S’10-M’16-SM’20) received the M.Sc. degree in Electronics Engineering from Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria (UTFSM) Valparaiso Chile in 2011 and the Ph.D. degree (Hons.) in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Ryerson University Toronto Canada in 2015. During 2016 and 2017 he was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Toronto and the Advanced Center of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (AC3E) UTFSM respectively.Since 2018 he has been with the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences Universidad de los Andes Chile currently appointed as Associate Professor. He is also an Associate Investigator at the AC3E and the Solar Energy Research Center (SERC-Chile) both centers of excellence in Chile.

His research focuses on dc distribution systems electric-vehicle charging infrastructure high efficiency DC–DC conversion multilevel converters and renewable energy systems.

Dr. Rivera was the recipient of the 2022 IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine Best Paper Award the Academic Gold Medal of the Governor General of Canada in 2016 the Ph.D. Scholarship from the Chilean National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT) in 2011 and the Emerging Leaders in the Americas Program Scholarship from Canada Global Affairs and the Canadian Bureau for International Education in 2010.



Title: Measurement of inverter induced current slopes for control and identification algorithms in power electronics and electrical drives applications

Dr.-Ing. Andreas Liske

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Kaiserstraße 12, Gebäude 11.10, Raum 114, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Precise and fast identification of the inverter induced current slopes within each switching state is mandatory for many sensorless or self-sensing control schemes, adaptive control algorithms, online parameter identification, rotor-temperature identification or inner fault detection of electrical machines.
But measuring this di/dt within every switching state is a very challenging task: High switching frequencies and short switching states lead to very short time slots in which the current slope of each switching state can be measured. Also noise, exact timing and the very strict realtime-demands in power electronics applications contribute to the complexity of the task.

Since years several different approaches to tackle these issues have been investigated and published. Also promising new ideas came up that solved some of the problems and show very promising results. All those methods can be split into two categories: direct and indirect methods.

Direct current slope identification means direct sensing of the current slopes ahead of the analog-digital converter: This is usually a hardware di/dt-sensor, that can be realized e.g. with a hardware circuit which differentiates the absolute sensor signal of a current transducer. Another possibility is the use of Rogowski coil based current transducers which has the advantage of high bandwidth, but on the downside the necessity of an integrator circuit for the measurement of the absolute value of the current. A very interesting and easy to implement new approach is the integration of a planar Rogowski coil inside a printed circuit board (PCB). Several prototypes show very good results in test bench measurements.

Indirect current slope identification means, that the current slopes are calculated in the signal-processing hardware after the analog-to-digital conversion. This is done by evaluating the measured absolute current values for example with least-squares estimators, linear regression or current deviation principles. In other words: Indirect methods use math inside a real-time control system rather than additional hardware to identify the current slopes. This calls for very efficient algorithms due to the limited calculation time. In this context a very efficient new least-squares-implementation with a latency of just one FPGA-cycle is presented. But since least-squares-estimation is based on high oversampling, this method in general is not suited for high switching frequency and at the same time low cost applications like e.g. low power DC/DC-converters. For this application a very efficient sub-sampling method, called “Easy current slope detection” was developed that runs on any standard microcontroller and is able to identify the current slopes by just using one sample per switching period. Be curious about how this works.

In this tutorial the potential and the benefit of the identification of inverter induced current slopes is outlined and a summary of several state of the art as well as promising new and scientific cutting edge approaches is given. The different methods are presented, explained, compared and hands-on tips & tricks from our long-term lab-experience in this topic are given.

Dr. Andreas Liske received the Dipl.-Ing. degree in electrical engineering and communication technology from the Technical University of Karlsruhe and the PhD degree in electrical engineering from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. Since 2010 he was lecturer and since 2012 senior engineer at the Institute of Electrical Engineering (ETI) at the KIT. In 2020, he became assistant professor and leader of the research team “Control and modelling of power electronics and electrical drives” at the very same institute. Dr. Liske teaches 4 lectures in power electronics, modeling and control of electrical machines at the KIT. One of his research topics was an adaptive current control scheme which highly depends on the fast and precise identification of the inverter induced current slopes. In this context he and his team developed several improvements and new methods. In 2020, he was an invited speaker to present those new ideas at the ECPE Cluster seminar “Realtime analysis and power metering of electrical machines and inverters” at the University of Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg, Germany. His recent research focuses on modeling and control of electrical drive systems, inverter modeling, grid stability and real-time signal processing in power electronics applications.


Title: Application of Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and Internet of Things for Smart Battery Management Systems Applied to E-mobility

Akash Samanta

Ontario Tech University 2000 Simcoe St N, Oshawa, ON L1G 0C5, Canada

Professor Sheldon Williamson

Ontario Tech University 2000 Simcoe St N, Oshawa, ON L1G 0C5, Canada

Transportation electrification is the need of the day to mitigate environmental pollution. Energy storage systems are an integral component of e-transportation as it largely determines their performance and commercial viability. Regarding this, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely preferred due to their high energy density, high power density, longer cycle life, and low self-discharge rate. However, the internal characteristics of LIB are highly nonlinear and extremely sensitive to the operating and environmental parameters. Moreover, one single cell can only supply a very small amount of voltage and power thus hundreds and thousands of individual cells are connected in series and parallel to obtain the required amount of voltage and current to drive the e-power train. Apart from nonlinearities, every cell is slightly different
in characteristics and their aging profiles are also different especially for second-life battery. Therefore, an effective battery management system (BMS) is a must to ensure optimum capacity utilization and operational safety. To that BMS not only monitors the external battery parameters and estimates different battery states, but it also performs cell balancing, thermal management, and predictive maintenance alerts. Ineffective battery management leads to fire
and catastrophic failure. Moreover, states like state of charge, state of health, and remaining useful life cannot be directly measured with physical sensors. Thus, several estimation techniques are introduced by researchers. However, with the revolution of data-driven techniques and advancement of micro-computers, data-driven artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) techniques standout recently. Therefore, it is worthwhile to discuss the AI and ML techniques and recent developments in the context of BMS. It is well-known that the data is the backbone of any AI and ML-based techniques thus collecting the historical and present operational data is extremely important. Furthermore, collecting high-resolution data and data processing in real-time needs the internet of things (IoT) for accessing advanced platforms such as cloud computing and cloud data storage.

The range anxiety and the long waiting time to recharge the battery pack are among the primary barriers to the wide adoption of electric vehicles. Recently with the introduction of fast charging techniques for LIBs, the issue is minimized to a significant extent. Now to ensure the safety with fast chargers requires advanced BMS that demands superfast data acquisition, processing and control, and very accurate and precise state estimation. Here the advanced AI and ML techniques with low computational cost and the application of digital twin technology will play a vital role. Therefore, it is worth discussing the advanced AI, ML, IoT, and digital twin technologies in detail. That will eventually encourage the wide adoption of electric vehicles and the development of the e-transportation industry. In addition, the recent research
and developments, current issues, and challenges that industry and researchers are facing will be discussed to highlight the way forward towards developing industry ready BMS and fast chargers. Finally, examples of practical BMS and testing facilities will be shown to encourage further research and developments for real-world EV applications.

Akash Samanta (Student Member, IEEE) received B. Tech degree (1st class) in Electrical Engineering from the West Bengal University of Technology in 2012. He also received M. Tech (1st class) and MBA (1st class) degree in Electrical Engineering and Energy Management from the University of Calcutta in 2018 and 2014 respectively. From 2014 to 2018 he was a Project Officer and Solar Energy Master Trainer with the Department of Energy Management, Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Kolkata, India. He is currently a Doctoral Research Scholar with the Department of Electrical, Computer and Software Engineering, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, ON, Canada. His research interest includes electric energy storage systems, battery management systems, power electronics converters, and the application of machine learning and artificial intelligence in the related field.


Sheldon Williamson (Fellow, IEEE) received the B.E. degree (Hons.) in electrical engineering from the University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India, in 1999, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees (Hons.) in electrical engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA, in 2002 and 2006, respectively. He is currently a Professor with the Department of Electrical, Computer and Software Engineering and the Director of Smart Transportation Electrification and Energy Research (STEER) Group, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, ON, Canada. His current research interests include advanced power electronics, electric energy storage systems, and motor drives for transportation electrification. He holds the prestigious NSERC Canada Research Chair position in electric energy storage systems for transportation electrification.


  • Devices & Components
  • E-mobility
  • Energy Storage
  • Other Related Topics
  • Power Converters
  • Power supplies
  • Motor Drives and Actuators


Kila Eco Park

Kila Eco Park can be enjoyed by members of the whole family. Activities include high and low rope walks, a zipline and a huge swing almost as high as 12metres. Guests can also experience nature walks of up to 10km, picnic bures and swim at the waterfalls.

Navua River Canoe, Fijian Village Visit, and Magic Waterfall

Guests can experience beautiful waterfalls , tropical forests and a visit to the local village to discover the lives of local Fijian people. A delicious riverside lunch is also provided to the visitors with a traditional Fijian experience.

Scuba diving

Top ranking places for scuba diving include and are not limited to the Beqa Lagoon, Yasawa Islands, Kadavu island and the beautiful bligh waters.

Sigatoka River Safari

The awe-inspiring Sigatoka River is the longest river on the island of Viti Levu, running from the hills of the Navosa Province right down to the sand dunes in Kulukulu, on the famous Coral Coast.

Mud Pool

Enjoy relaxing for a few hours at the Sabeto Hot Springs & Mud Pools. It is an experience of only a few hours thus you can either go in the morning, at noon or even in the afternoon.

Beqa Adventure Divers

Guests can experience at least 8 different varieties of sharks while taking part in the Beqa Adventure.